Emphysema

Usual (and unusual) types

 MRCP  Chest Medicine

SmokingAlpha-1 Antitrypsin DeficiencyCoalCadmiumMacleod's syndrome
HistoryUsually long smoking historyYoung patientOccupational history as minerOccupational history of metal plating, solar cells.Childhood bronchitis
Distribution on CXRmixed centrilobular and panacinarLower zone emphysema, pancinarCentrilobularUnilateral
AssociationsCOPDLiver cirrhosisPulmonary fibrosis
random card | random quiz

The vast majority of cases of typical emphysema are caused by smoking but the other causes need to be considered especially in those that have not smoked.



related

Valvular heart disease | Hyperparathyroidism classification | Eponymous cardiac murmurs | Granulomatous mycobacterial infections of the skin | Familial hyperlipidaemias | Hyponatraemia | Motor defects | Endocarditis | Inflammatory bowel disease | Cutaneous infestations | Jaundice | Renal tubular acidosis types | Oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea |