Usual (and unusual) types

 MRCP  Chest Medicine

SmokingAlpha-1 Antitrypsin DeficiencyCoalCadmiumMacleod's syndrome
HistoryUsually long smoking historyYoung patientOccupational history as minerOccupational history of metal plating, solar cells.Childhood bronchitis
Distribution on CXRmixed centrilobular and panacinarLower zone emphysema, pancinarCentrilobularUnilateral
AssociationsCOPDLiver cirrhosisPulmonary fibrosis
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The vast majority of cases of typical emphysema are caused by smoking but the other causes need to be considered especially in those that have not smoked.


Eponymous cardiac murmurs | Granulomatous mycobacterial infections of the skin | Familial hyperlipidaemias | Hyponatraemia | Motor defects | Endocarditis | Inflammatory bowel disease | Cutaneous infestations | Jaundice | Renal tubular acidosis types | Oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea | Valvular heart disease | Hyperparathyroidism classification |