Usual (and unusual) types

 MRCP  Chest Medicine

SmokingAlpha-1 Antitrypsin DeficiencyCoalCadmiumMacleod's syndrome
HistoryUsually long smoking historyYoung patientOccupational history as minerOccupational history of metal plating, solar cells.Childhood bronchitis
Distribution on CXRmixed centrilobular and panacinarLower zone emphysema, pancinarCentrilobularUnilateral
AssociationsCOPDLiver cirrhosisPulmonary fibrosis
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The vast majority of cases of typical emphysema are caused by smoking but the other causes need to be considered especially in those that have not smoked.


Familial hyperlipidaemias | Granulomatous mycobacterial infections of the skin | Hyponatraemia | Endocarditis | Motor defects | Cutaneous infestations | Inflammatory bowel disease | Jaundice | Oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea | Renal tubular acidosis types | Valvular heart disease | Hyperparathyroidism classification | Eponymous cardiac murmurs |