Chest examination

 Respiratory  PACES

pleural effusionpneumothoraxconsolidationlobar collapseemphysemachronic bronchitispulmonary fibrosis
'foot of bed' findingschest drain / scarchest drain / scarflushedradiation marks (if lung cancer)lip pursing, inhalerslip pursing, inhalersreduced expansion
clubbing+ (if lung cancer)+ (if lung cancer)+ (if cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis)
chest signsgynaecomastia (if lung cancer)barrel chest
trachea examinationpushed awaypulled towardstracheal tug
expansionreduced unilateralreduced unilateralreduced unilateralreduced unilateralnormal / reduced / paradoxicalnormal / reducedreduced
percussionstony dullnormal / hyper-resonantdulldullnormal / hyper-resonantnormal / dullnormal / ?dull
vocal resonanceabsent / reducedreducedincreasedreducedreducedreducedreduced
breath soundsAbsent / reduced (can be bronchial above)reducedbronchialreducedreducedreducedbronchial
added soundsclickscrackles, rubswheezewheezefine inspiratory crackles
distribution of findingsbaseunilateralaffected lobelobe or segmentbasebasebases (occasionally apices)
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related

Valvular heart disease | Eponymous cardiac murmurs |